The 26-year-old joined Hull from Wigan at the beginning of the current season, but suffered a freak spinal injury in pre-season training.
He made his debut for the Black and Whites in March, against Bradford, but suffered a recurrence of the injury in the recent game against Warrington.
Three weeks of tests and work with a consultant have shown that it would be very unwise for him to play again.
“I am extremely disappointed to have to finish my playing career in this way, but my health and well-being has to come first,” he said.
“I have received first class support from the medical staff here, the specialists, and of course my family. It was a very difficult decision to make, but it is the right one.
“There were discussions about playing on, but I can’t be sure how the injury would react and any wrong move could make it much more serious.
“Everybody at the club has been great to me. The players, coaches, staff and the fans have all been really supportive, and I’m gutted I’ve not had chance to repay that faith on the field.
“I would also like to thank my family who have always been there for me throughout my career and who couldn’t have been more supportive and understanding of the situation over the last few weeks.
“They have reminded me there is much to life than just playing rugby, although right now it doesn’t feel that way.”
Tuson will now take on the role of Player Welfare Officer with Hull, and will also be the assistant coach for he club’s Under-19s.
“It is a very sad day for Chris and for the club as he is an influential player both on and off the field, and before the injury he was starting to show signs of exactly why we brought him to the club,” added Hull coach Lee Radford.
“No player deserves their career to end in this way, but after considering all the factors and specialist opinions, it is the right call for Chris and his family. He has handled himself admirably over the last couple of weeks, despite such adversity.
“As one door closes, another opens, and we’re really looking forward to having Chris on the coaching team.
“He has a winning mentality and the young players in the Under 19s will learn a lot from him and he understands the mind-set of what it takes to progress as a professional having come through the superb academy system at Wigan.
“He will also continue to work closely with the first team on a number of off-field issues, and it will be a major boost to the players having a character like Chris around the training ground.”